B.A. (SOL)



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Social Science
(Transport, Communication and Trade.)

Q.1. Why is transport a necessity?
Ans. Transport helps in the movement of people, goods and materials form one place to other. It helps in the distribution of goods after production.

Q.2. Name five means of transport.
Ans. Means of transport :
(i) Buses
(ii) Trains
(iii) Ships
(iv) Boats
(v) Aeroplanes.

Q.3. Why is communication a necessity of life?
Ans. Communication helps in interacting with others, hence it is necessary for life.

Q.4. Name four means of communication.
Ans. Means of communication:
(i) telephone
(ii) mobile phone
(ii) internet
(iv) television
(v) radio.

Q.5. What are the means of mass communication?
Ans. Means of mass communication :
(i) newspaper, (ii) radio, (iii) television, (iv) magazines, (v) journals, (vi) books and (vii) films.

Q.6. Why is railway so important today?
Ans. The railways is called the main artery of inland transport and is called lifeline of the country for the movement of traffic – freight and passengers.

Q.7. Name any three railway zones with their headquarters.
Ans. The railway zones are :
S. No. Zone Headquarters
1 Northern New Delhi
2 North – Eastern Gorakhpur
3 Southern Chennai
4 Eastern Kolkata (Howrah)
5 Western Mumbai (Church Gate)
6 Central Mumbai V. T.
7 South – Eastern Kolkata
8 North – East Frontier Maligaon (Guwahati)
9 South – Central Secundrabad


Distinguish between Personal and Mass Communication.
Personal Communication Mass Communication
1. Limited number of people are involved
in it.
1. Several people at a time are involved in
Mass Communication.
2. Postal, Telegraph, Telephone, Mobile
phone and e – mail.
2. T.V., Radio, Press and Audio – visual
Q.9. What are National highways?
Ans. One state to another state is connected by National highways. These are of national importance. These are constructed and maintained by central government.

Q.10. What are express way National highways?
Ans. Express way National highways is for the fast movement of traffic in the country. These includes 4 and 6 lanes for long distances fast moving traffic.

Q.11. Name the places which will be connected by Golden Quadrilateral express way highways.
Ans. The Golden Quadrilateral express way highways will connect Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Delhi. Its total length is 5846 km.

Q.12. What are the international highways? Name one such highway.
Ans. The highway which connects one country with another are called international highways. Example – Kolkata to Pesawar.

Q.13. Differentiate between Railway junction and Sea port.
Railway Junction Sea Port
1. It located on land. 1. It is located on the sea coast.
2. Traffic of passengers and goods are
handled here.
2. Import and export of goods are handled
2. Traffic of passengers and goods are
handled here.
3. It is cheap.


Name any four international ports of India.
Ans. International ports of India :
(i) Mumbai
(ii) Kolkata
(iii) Chennai
(iv) Kandla.

Q.15. Name two Inland waterways of India.
Ans. The inland waterways of India :
(i) The Ganga river between Allahabad to Haldia.
(ii) The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya to Dhubri.

Q.16. Name major ports on the east coast of India.
Ans. The major ports on the east cost :
(i) Kolkata (ii) Haldia (iii) Paradip (iv) Chennai (v) Ennore (vi) Tuticorin (vii) Vishakhapatnam.

Q.17. Name the states where Marmagao, New Mangalore, Paradip and Tuticorin ports are located.
Ans. (i) Marmagao – Goa. (ii) New Mangalore – Karnataka. (iii) Paradip – Orissa. (iv) Tuticorin – Tamil Nadu.

Q.18. Name three means of mass communication.
Ans. The important means of mass communication :
(i) Radio
(ii) Television
(iii) Newspapers.

Q.19. Name two first class mail.
Ans. First class mail are :
(i) postcards
(ii) envelopes.

Q.20. Name two major ports on the west coast.
Ans. Major ports on the west coast are :
(i) Mumbai
(ii) Cochin.

Q.21. State the types of gauges. What are the advantages of Uni gauge?
Ans. The three types of gauges are :
(i) Broad Gauge – 1.675 m.
(ii) Meter Gauge – 1 meter.
(iii) Narrow Gauge – 0.610 m.
Uni gauge system of railways ensures higher speed, larger capacity, reduction in transshipment and cheaper transportation cost.

Q.22. What are the significance of Airways?
Ans. Significance of Airways:
(i) Fastest modes of transport.
(ii) Airways are the best means of transport in the remote, hostile and inaccessible areas.
(iii) It plays a vital role in natural event and calamities like floods, earthquakes, famines, fires, etc.

Q.23. Study the data given below and answer the questions that precede them:
(i) What was the total length of railway route in 2000 – 2001?
(ii) How much increase occurred in the length of electrified routes between 1999 –2000 and 2000 – 2001?
Railway Network in India
Length of Rail Routes (Km) 1999 – 2000 2000 – 2001
Total length 62,809 62,759
Broad Gauge 44,216 44,383
Meter Gauge 15,178 15,013
Narrow Gauge 3,415 3,363
Electrified Route 14,579 15,063
Ans. (i) 62,759 km. (ii) 15,062 – 14,579 = 983 km.

Q.24. The great Plains have more railways than the Himalayan mountains. Why?
Ans. The distribution pattern of the railway network is influenced by physiographic, economic and administrative factors. The Great Plains of India has leveled land, high population density, rich agriculture and greater industrial activity. Hence this plain has more railways than Himalayan mountain.

Q.25. What are the problems of railways today?
Ans. Problems of railway are :
(i) Ticket-less passengers
(ii) Unnecessary chain pulling
(iii) People stop trains causing heavy loss.
(iv) Theft and damaging of railway property.

Q.26. Write the advantages of the pipeline transportation for petroleum and natural gas.
Ans. (i) Pipeline transportation is fast, safe, clean and free from delays.
(ii) Crude oil, petroleum product and natural gas can easily be transported from
oil/natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal plants easily.
(iii) The thermal power plants can now be constructed very close to their market.
(iv) For such facilities refineries can be constructed in the interior such as Barauni, Mathura, Panipat and Karnal.

Q.27. Distinguish between Transport and Communication.
Transport Communication
1. The system in which passengers and
goods are carried from one place to another.
1. The system in which messages and news
are communicated from one place to
2. The modes are roads, railways, waterways and airways. 2. The means are post, telephone, radio,
television, news papers, magazines etc.
3. It is expensive. 3. It is cheap.
4. Natural calamities such as floods and
earthquakes affect it.
4. It brings quick relief in areas of natural


What is meant by favourable balance of trade? Discuss whether India’s foreign trade is favourable or not?
Ans. The difference between imports and exports is known as balance of trade. If exports are more than imports, the balance of trade is favourable or positive. India’s foreign trade is not favourable as value of our imports are more than the exports due to our increasing demands and growing economy.

Q.29. Describe various types of roads in India.
Ans. Depending on the construction, maintenance and administration Indian roads are classified as under :
(i) National Highways – Constructed and maintained by the Central Government, which connect State capitals, big cities and ports across the country.
(ii) State Highways – Constructed and maintained by the State Government, which connect the state capital with the major cities, town and districts of the state.
(iii) District Roads – Join district headquarters with town of the district.
(iv) Village Roads – Connect village with towns.
(v) Border Roads – Constructed and maintained by Central Government. The defence of our country depends on these roads. The world’s highest road is from Manali to Leh.

Q.30. Study the data given below and answer the questions that follow. Major commodities transported by the Indian Railways
(In Billion Tonn - Kilometre)
Commodity 1960 – 61 1997 – 98
1. Coal 20.35 127.52
2. Raw material for steel plants 1.99 13.39
3. Cement 2.47 20.95
4. Food grains 9.62 30.96
5. Fertilizers Negligible 22.01
6. Mineral oil 2.56 19.66
(i) Which has been the most dominating commodity carried by Indian Railways between 1960 – 61 to 1997 – 98?
(ii) Give one reason for higher freight.
Ans. (i) Coal.
(ii) Coal is mostly used for :
(a) Generating Thermal Power.
(b) Iron and Steel Industries.
(c) Raw materials for several industries.

Q.31. Study the data given below and answer the questions that follow it:
Progress made by Indian Railway (1950 – 51 to 1996 – 97)
Items 1950 – 51 1996 – 97
1. Total Route Length (km) 53,596
2. Electrified Route Length (km) 388
3. Passengers (in lakhs) 12,840
4. Number of Railway engine
(i) Steam
(ii) Diesel
(iii) Electric


5. Coaches 19,628 39,257
6. Wagons 2,05,596 2,72,127
(i) During the 46 years from 1950 – 51 to 1996 – 97 the total route length increased only marginally. Why? Give one reason.
(ii) How many times has electrified route length increased during this period? Give one reason for this increase.
Ans. (i) The total route length increased only marginally due to the policy of increasing the capacity of the existing tracks.
(ii) 43 times.

Q.32. Study the following table and answer the questions:
Operation of Indian Railways.
Items Unit 1950 – 51 1997 – 98
1. Route electrified 000 kms. 0.4 14.0
2. Total Route length 000 kms. 53.6 62.5
3. Earnings from goods carried Crore Rs. 139.3 19595.0
4. Passenger earnings Crore Rs. 98.2 7573.2
5. Average rate per passenger – kilometer Paise 1.5 19.7

(i) How much increase has been noticed in the total rail length between 1950 – 51 and 1997 – 98?
(ii) What is the motive behind electrifying more and more rail routes in India?
Ans. (i) The total route length increased = 62.5 – 53.6 = 8.9 km.
(ii) Due to electricity we get speed, more traction power, clean and comfortable journey.
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