B.A. (SOL)



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Social Science
Forest and Water Resources

Q.1. State the four main vegetation regions of India.
Ans. (i) Tropical rain forests.
(ii) Tropical deciduous forests.
(iii) Tropical thorn forests
and shrubs.
(iv) Tidal forest/Mongrove forest.

Q.2. State "biosphere reserve‟ with examples.
Ans. It is a multipurpose protected area to preserve the genetic diversity in the representative eco system. In India 12 biosphere reserve has been developed to preserve natural habitat and protect them from becoming extinct.

Example : -
(i) Nilgiri biosphere reserve,
(ii) Kaziranga,
(iii) Periyar, etc.

Q.3. Why is conservation of wildlife essential?
Ans. Disappearance of wildlife and wide variety of plants is due to depletion of forest. This may also lead to serious deterioration of genetic reserve.

Q.4. What do you mean by National Park?
Ans. A National Park is a large area where one or several ecosystems exist. Here plant and animal species and habitats are of special educative and recreative interests.

Example : -

(i) Simlipal at Orissa.
(ii) Corbett in Uttaranchal.

Q.5. What are reserve forests?
Ans. Reserve forests are forest which are permanently earmarked for the production of timber or other forest produce. Right of grazing and cultivation is seldom allowed in this forest.

Q.6. What is the percentage area coverage of forest land in India?
Ans. At present 23% of geographical area is covered by forest in India.

Q.7. Is irrigation necessary in India? If yes, why?
Ans. Agriculture is the main occupation of Indian. Rain is concentrated only from June to September. The rainfall is not certain. This affects crops badly. Thus timely and adequate irrigation in necessary for the productivity and quality of crops.

Q.8. State two areas where canal irrigation has developed lot of net sown area under irrigation.
Ans. (i) Northern area
(ii) Coastal plains.

Q.9. What is a river valley project?
Ans. It is a multipurpose river valley project meant to tackle various problems associated with river valleys in an integrated manner. For example : flood control, irrigation, hydroelectricity, etc.

Q.10. State the names of states of India where 40% of net sown area are under irrigation.
Ans. The states hving over 40% of net sown area under irrigation are:
(i) Punjab (ii) Haryana (iii) Uttar Pradesh (iv) Bihar (v) Jammu and Kashmir (vi) Tamil Nadu (vii) Manipur.

Q.11. What do you mean by watershed development?
Ans. The watershed is a basin of a tributary and the watershed development is the integrated development of small natural unit area. This is a holistic approach which includes moisture conservation, water harvesting, afforestation, horticulture, pasture development, etc.

Q.12. What do you mean by rainwater harvesting?
Ans. It is a technique of increasing the recharge of ground water by capturing and collecting rain water to meet the household needs through storage in tanks.

Q.13. What are the plans taken into consideration for watershed development?
Ans. The plans taken into consideration are:
(i) The Land Capability (ii) The Need of The People (iii) The Participation of The Local People.

Q.14. What are the two basic needs of life?
Ans. (i) Supply of drinking water (ii) Sanitation.

Q.15. There is a yawning gap between demand and supply of water. Why?
Ans. There is a yawning gap between demand and supply of water because 8% of the town in India do not have potable water supply. Nearly 50% of the villages are yet to be provided with protected drinking water.

Q.16. State the causes of growing scarcity of water.
Ans. Causes of growing scarcity of water are :
(i) Rapidly growing population.
(ii) Rising demand for food and cash crop.
(iii) Increasing urbanization.
(iv) Rising standard of living.

Q.17. State the names of states where tank irrigation is common.
Ans. Tank irrigation is common in the following states:
(i) Andhra Pradesh
(ii) Karnataka
(iii) Tamil Nadu.

Q.18. State the major resources of irrigation. Which of them is most widespread?
Ans. The major resources of irrigation are:
(i) Canals (ii) Wells and Tube-wells (iii) Tanks.
Wells and Tube-wells are the most widespread sources.

Q.19. State the names of intensely irrigated area in India.
Ans. There is a wide variation in irrigated areas within each state. The intensely irrigated areas are:
(i) The Godavari-Krishna delta,
(ii) Coastal district of Andhra Pradesh,
(iii) Mahanadi delta of Orissa,
(iv) Cauvery delta of Tamil Nadu,
(v) Pujab,
(vi) Haryana,
(vii) Western Uttar Pradesh.

Q.20. State the percentage of net sown area under irrigation in India. Name the state with the maximum and minimum net sown area under irrigation.
Ans. Nearly 38% of the net sown area in India is under irrigation. The percentage of Punjab is the maximum i.e. 90.8% and Mizoram the minimum i.e. 7.3%.

Q.21. Classify the forest according to their density.
Ans. According to the density the forest are classified as under :
(i) Dense forest = 59%.
(ii) Open forest = 40%.
(iii) Mangrove forest = 1%.

Q.22. Differentiate between forest area and forest cover.


State the minimum desired area under forest. State the name of an area with the maximum and minimum area under forest.
Ans. According to the National Forest Policy, the minimum desired area under forest in the country should be 33%. Andaman and Nicobar Island have 86.9% forest and Haryana has 3.8%.

Q.24. Name the area which have less than 10% of the area under forest.
Ans. (i) Punjab, (ii) Haryana, (iii) Gujarat, (iv) Rajasthan, (v) Delhi and (vi) Jammu and Kashmir.

Q.25. Name the animals of the Himalayan ranges.
Ans. (i) wild sheep, (ii) mountain goat, (iii) panda, (iv) snow leopard.

Q.26. Give any four ways in which forests contribute towards our economic development.
Ans. (i) Forests support various industries. (ii) Provide livelihood for many communities. (iii) Provide fuel wood. (iv) Forests provide medicinal plants. 

Q.27. What percentage of water is used for irrigation? Why?
Ans. For Irrigation 84% of water is used because agriculture is the main occupation in India and rainfall is not sufficient.

Q.28. Why are the Himalayan rivers perennial? Why are peninsular rivers seasonal?
Ans. Himalayan rivers have their source in the glaciers and snow fields. Hence they are perennial. For example Ganga from Gangotri glacier and Yamuna from Yamunotri glacier. The peninsular rivers are seasonal as they depends entirely on monsoonrains. For example Godavari, Narmada, Krishna, Cauveri, etc.

Q.29. Describe replenishable groundwater resources of India.
Ans. The replenishable groundwater potential in India is about 43.4 billion cubic metres. It is mostly available on plains and 37% of this is being used. There are several low cost techniques to recharge groundwater aquifer. They are :
(i) Construction of percolation pits,
(ii) Digging trenches around field,
(iii) Refilling of dug wells,
(iv) Building check dams on small rivulets, and
(v) Harvesting of roof water and storing it in tanks or below the ground.

Q.30. How will you classify the forest for the purpose of administration?
Ans. For administration purposes, forests are classified as follows:
(i) Reserved forests – These are reserved to provide forest products like timber. Grazing and cultivation are seldom allowed.
(ii) Protected forests – These allow grazing and cultivation with minor restriction.
(iii) Unclaimed forests – They consists largely of inaccessible forests or unoccupied wastes.

Q.31. State the advantages of social forestry and farm forestry.
Social forestry and farm forestry will provide fodder and fuel. Afforestation will check soil erosion by regulating stream flow. Wildlife and wild variety of plants will be conserved.

Q.32. State the name of animals associated with the following places:
(i) West Bengal, (ii) Rann of Kachch, (iii) Assam, (iv) Gir, (v) Kerala and (vi) Thar desert.
(i) West Bengal – Tiger
(ii) Ranna of Kachch – Wild Ass
(iii) Assam – Rhinoceros
(iv) Gir – Lion
(v) Kerala – Elephant
(vi) Thar desert – Camel.


What is Van Mahotsava? How conservation of forest can be contributed by us?
Ans. (i) A date set to plant saplings all over the country is known as Van Mahotsava.
(ii) (a) By creating public awareness about the importance of trees.
(b) All the national day celebration programme should follow tree plantation programme.

Q.34. What is conservation of wetlands in India?
Ans. In India there are programme for conservation of wetlands, mangroves and coral reefs under the preservation of special ecosystem. There are 20 wetlands in India and most of them are directly and indirectly linked with major system like Ganga, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Tapi, Godavari, Krishna, etc.

Q.35. What is the objectives of Multipurpose River Valley Projects. Give examples.
Ans. The objectives of Multipurpose River Valley Project are : -
(i) to control flood, (ii) to check soil erosion, (iii) to provide water for irrigation, (iv) to provide water for drinking, (v) to generate electricity, (vi) to provide inland navigation, (vii) to encourage tourism and recreaction, (viii) to preserve wildlife, (ix) to develop fisheries, etc.

Example : -
Bhakhra Nangal, Hirakund, Kosi, Chambal, etc.

Q.36. Name one National Park each of Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat. Why are elephants found mainly in Assam. Kerala and Karnaka?
Ans. (i) Uttar Pradesh ___ Jim Corbett National Park
(ii) Gujarat ___ Gir forest
Elephant are found in Kerala, Assam and Karnataka as there are Tropical rain forest.

Q.37. “Availability of water varies from place to place and time to time in India.” Explain the statement with one example of each.
Ans. Water is essential for life. It is considered as pre-condition of life. It is very critical and important resource of India. The monsoon rainfall throughout the country is essential. Delhi and jodhpur receive rainfall for two to three months while Thiruvanathapuram for eight to nine months.

Q.38. Describe the importance of water in life.
Ans. Importance of water are:
(i) It is required for drinking and other domestic use.
(ii) It is used for industrial purposes.
(iii) It is used for irrigation.
(iv) The growing urbanization is also demanding greater share of water.
(v) Water has become indispensable for the disposal of ever growing municipal sewage and dirt of all sorts.

Q.39. Differentiate between Himalayan and Peninsular rivers.


How forests are useful to man?
Ans Forest are renewable source and its contribution towards economic development is known to all. They perform following functions :
(i) Protective
(ii) Productive.

Protective functions of forest are:
(a) To improve the quality of the environment.
(b) To modify local climate.
(c) To control soil erosion.
(d) To regulate flow of the streams.
(e) To reduce wind force and influence air temperature.
(f) To provide humus to the soil and increase its fertility.
(g) To provide wildlife.
Productive function of forest are :
(a) Provide livelihood for many communities.
(b) Offer opportunities for recreation.
(c) Provide industrial wood.
(d) Provide timber.
(e) Provide fuel wood.
(f) Provide fodder for the animals.
(g) Support a variety of industries, e.g. rubber.
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